- Cheong J, Kwak DW, Tang KK, March 2020, Trade elasticity: Estimates from product-level data paper no. 29/2020.
- Liu W, March 2020, Demographic change, carbon convergence and climate policy paper no. 26/2020.
- Liu W, McKibbin W, March 2020, Macroeconomic impacts of global demographic change on Australia paper no. 22/2020.
The Growth, Demographics and Productivity program promotes understanding of the economic growth processes for developing and developed countries. Growth in per capita output comprises growth in “three P’s”, Productivity, Participation and Population, which provide the following key areas of focus:
• How do research and development (R&D) and investment in human capital sustain economic growth in OECD countries? Can policies enhance long run growth prospects? What lessons and evidence relevant to developing countries does the experience of OECD countries provide? What role do institutions play in facilitating innovation and education led growth? What are potential drags on economic growth in the form of demographic change, finite resources, trade and macroeconomic policies?
• Understanding changes in patterns and determinants of labour input. How do gender wage gaps, retiring cohorts, and immigration affect labour markets? What role does education play in labour productivity? Can we identify policies to promote labour force participation and productivity?
• The world’s population doubled twice in the twentieth century, but is not expected to double once this century. What are the economic determinants and consequences of changes in fertility, life expectancy and demographic structure? Are these changes inevitable? How does demographic change benefit economies? What are the challenges facing ageing economies? What policies reconcile demographic change with productivity growth and employment?